The median is the number in the middle when the data set is arranged in order from least to greatest.

Find the median of the data set: {16, 19, 19, 25, 27, 29, 75}

median = 25

When a data set contains an even number of values, finding the median requires averaging the two middle values.

Find the median of the data set: {75, 80, 82, 100}

median = \(\frac{80\ +\ 82}{2}\)

= 81

The mode is the most frequent outcome in a data set. If several values appear an equally frequent number of times, both values are considered the mode. If every value in a data set appears only once, the data set has no mode.

Mode is most common. Median is in the middle (like a median in the road). Mean is average.

Other useful indicators include range and outliers. The range is the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a data set.

Find the range: {16, 19, 19, 25, 27, 29, 75}

range = 75 − 16 = 59

Outliers, or data points that are much different from other data points, should be noted as they can skew the central tendency. In the data set {16, 19, 19, 25, 27, 29, 75}, the value 75 is far outside the other values and raises the value of the mean. Without the outlier, the mean is much closer to the other data points.