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Directions: Each question consists of a sentence with underlined portions. Determine if any of the underlined parts contains inappropriate word use, poor or incorrect grammatical construction, or incorrect or omitted punctuation or capitalization that needs revision to produce a correct sentence. If there are no errors in the sentence as written, select “No error.” No sentence has more than one error.
The storm chasers, who stressed and emphasized the importance of caution in their work, decided not to go out when the sheets of rain made visibility too low.
Modern archeology, which seeks to find answers to humanity’s questions about its past, is helped significantly by new technologies, which allow them to search for clues without ever sticking a shovel in the dirt.
The assassination of President John F. Kennedy continued to haunt and fascinate Americans, with new movies, books, and television series still being released every year.
The Boat Race, a rowing race that has been held nearly annually in London, England, since 1856, was infamously interrupted in 2012 when a protester dove in and began swimming amongst the boats.
The Chicago Tribune is famous not only because of its wide circulation, but also because of its moments in history: in 1948, the paper published an erroneous headline about the winner of the Presidential election, and in 1974, it called for President Nixon’s resignation after publishing the complete text of the Watergate tapes.
James having already been awake for nineteen hours, after a twelve-hour work day, when he received the news.
Sandra’s principal reasons for choosing the job were that it would be full time and would offer benefits.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an honorary society and policy research organization, includes members whose fields of study span many disciplines, such as math sciences, arts, humanities, public affairs, and business.
On Parents’ Day, a public holiday in the Democratic Republic of Congo, families celebrate parents’ both living and deceased.
In the eighteenth century, renowned composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart set to music the poetry of a famous, well-known writer who shared his name: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Atop the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Roof Garden offers a view so remarkable, it is sometimes bemoaned as a distraction from the art that is on exhibition.
The Mammoth-Flint Ridge Cave System, located in central Kentucky inside Mammoth Cave National Park, is the largest cave system in the world, enclosing over fifty thousand acres of space and four hundred miles of passageway.
Directions: In each of the following sentences, some part or all of the sentence is underlined. You are provided with five ways of writing the underlined part. The first choice is always the same as the original; the other four choices differ. Choose the answer that most effectively expresses the meaning of the sentence, while following the requirements of standard written English.
Hurricanes, which costs the United States roughly $5 billion per year in damages, have been the cause of almost two million deaths in the last two hundred years.
Though Woodstock appeared in Peanuts comic strips as early as April 1967, he was not named until June 1970, ten months after the famous music festival of the same name, Woodstock.
Tardiness, messiness, and rudeness: these were the characteristics that finally drove the etiquette teacher to punish the class by having them recite repeatedly: “I will be polite. I will be neat. I will be on time.”
Typically, water that has evaporated remain in the sky in cloud form for fewer than ten days before falling to Earth again as precipitation.
Unlike a traditional comic book, which would likely be released as part of a periodical or series, a graphic novel is released as only one single publication, either in the form of one long story or in the form of an anthology.
Though organized firefighting groups existed as early as Ancient Egypt, the first fully state-run brigade was created by Emperor Augustus of Rome which also functioned as the nation’s official police force.
In 1903, Pennsylvania depicting politicians as animals, passed a law prohibiting cartoonists in order to curb criticism by the press; in response, however, artists like Walt McDougall began depicting politicians in an even less flattering light—as inanimate objects such as trees and mugs.
In 1977, Jerry R. Ehman detected a signal that seemed to come from a source outside the Earth’s atmosphere, using a powerful radio telescope, which played for over a minute.
In today’s professional baseball leagues, strict regulations have standardized the design of bats; in the early days of baseball, although, players often shaped their own bats, leading to a wide range of shapes, sizes, and weights.
Vivariums are controlled, enclosed spaces designed to replicate a particular habitat, and while aquariums and terrariums are fairly common, insectariums (for keeping insects) and penguinariums (for keeping penguins) are less so.
L. L. Zamenhof, an ophthalmologist in the late 1800s, invented a language called Esperanto with the goal of creating a universal second language that could be taught around the world in order to instill international communications and relations.
Before self-driving vehicles are just now being introduced on the automotive market, research into automating vehicle processes began as early as the 1920s.
Directions: The following passage is a draft of an essay that needs strengthening through editing and revision. Read the passage and choose the best answers for the questions that follow. Some questions will ask you to improve sentences or parts of sentences. Sometimes the portion in question may require no changes at all. Consider organization, development, tone, style, word choice, and the requirements of standard written English in answering the questions.
(1) The relationship between humanity and its animal counterparts is a complicated one. (2) Leaning on its superior intelligence, humanity has sought to remain at the top of the food chain by asserting its control over the animal kingdom. (3) As is true with anything, though, things do occasionally go wrong. (4) While these incidents sometimes end in funny or heartwarming stories, other times they end in fear and destruction. (5) Either way, though, one thing is clear: we are not as in control as we like to think we are.
(6) Sometimes, escaped animal stories end happily and leave us feeling even more affection for our furry neighbors. (7) In the 1980s, for example, the world fell in love with Ken Allen, an orangutan who escaped three times from his supposedly escape-proof enclosure at the San Diego Zoo; when he escaped, Ken Allen would go for peaceful walks around the park because he liked observing the other animals and zoo patrons with fascination. (8) Hercules, a trained grizzly bear who escaped from the set of a television commercial, found similar fame during his twenty-four-days of freedom; news audiences fell in love with the bear who, despite his hunger, refused to hunt and kill the various wildlife he encountered.
(9) Other times, though, escaped animals can pose a threat to the safety of humans and other animals. (10) Goldie, for example, a male golden eagle, escaped from the London Zoo in 1965 and went on to attack two terriers who were at a park with their owner; fortunately, the owner was able to drive the predatory bird away, and zookeepers finally caught Goldie. (11) In 2007, a male gorilla named Bokito became infamous when he escaped his enclosure at a Netherlands zoo and promptly abducted, and caused severe injury to, a female zoo visitor. (12) It was reported that the visitor, who visited Bokito at the zoo multiple times each week, ignored numerous warnings by zookeepers to avoid making eye contact and smiling with the large gorilla, nonverbal cues that they worried he would interpret as aggressive. (13) In 1994 during a circus performance, Tyke, a female African elephant, killed her trainer and attacked two other circus employees before escaping the arena and running free for nearly half an hour; police fired numerous shots at the animal, eventually killing her.
Which is the best way to revise and combine sentences 3 and 4 (reproduced below) at the underlined point?
As is true with anything, though, things do occasionally go wrong. While these incidents sometimes end in funny or heartwarming stories, other times they end in fear and destruction.
Which of the following, if added to the end of sentence 5 (reproduced below), would clarify the author’s meaning?
Either way, though, one thing is clear: we are not as in control as we like to think we are.
Which of the following provides the best introduction to the second paragraph?
Which is the best revision of the underlined portion of sentence 7 (reproduced below)?
In the 1980s, for example, the world fell in love with Ken Allen, an orangutan who escaped three times from his supposedly escape-proof enclosure at the San Diego Zoo; when he escaped, Ken Allen would go for peaceful walks around the park because he liked observing the other animals and zoo patrons with fascination.
Which is the best revision for sentence 12 (reproduced below)?
It was reported that the visitor, who visited Bokito at the zoo multiple times each week, ignored numerous warnings from zookeepers to avoid making eye contact and smiling with the large gorilla, nonverbal cues that they worried he would interpret as aggressive.
Which of the following provides the best conclusion for this passage?
(1) Becoming president of the United States is a privilege few people will ever get to experience. (2) Since its founding in 1776, many years ago, the country has seen only forty-four presidents in office. (3) Most of them have since left office and have gone on to lead lives of comfort and influence. (4) However, they may never again experience the power or the excitement of their former office, retired presidents continue to enjoy many benefits as a result of their service as president of the United States.
(5) Presidents receive a number of benefits upon retirement, many of which are afforded by the Former Presidents Act of 1958. (6) First and foremost, they receive an annual pension payment. (7) The amount of the pensionhas been reviewed and changed a number of times, most recently to reflect the salary of a high-level government executive (roughly $200,000 in the 2010s). (8) In addition to their pension, retired presidents and their families are also entitled to ongoing Secret Service protection, which lasts until the death of the president.
(9) In addition to the assurances of safety and stability, retired presidents continue to enjoy some of the influence that accompanies their former office and a few have even gone on to accomplish great work in their post-presidency years. (10) Particularly notable are the careers of William Howard Taft and Jimmy Carter. (11) In 1921, eight years after leaving office, William Howard Taft was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Warren G. Harding, an office he filled until just before his death; to this day, he is the only individual to ever fill both offices. (12) Jimmy Carter went on to become an enthusiastic and impactful campaigner for human rights. (13) He started the Carter Center in 1982 to advance his efforts and, in 2002, was granted the Nobel Peace Prize for his work.
Which of the following replacements for the underlined phrase in sentence 2 (reproduced below) most impactfully communicates the amount of time that has passed since 1776?
Since its founding in 1776, many years ago, the country has seen only forty-four presidents in office.
In context, which of the following replacements for the underlined portion would best begin sentence 4 (reproduced below)?
However, they may never again experience the power or the excitement of their former office, retired presidents continue to enjoy many benefits as a result of their service as president of the United States.
Which of the following would NOT be an acceptable way to revise and combine sentences 6 and 7 (reproduced below) at the underlined point?
First and foremost, they receive an annual pension payment. The amount of the pension has been reviewed and changed a number of times, most recently to reflect the salary of a high-level government executive (roughly $200,000 in the 2010s).
Which of the following would provide the most logical conclusion to the second paragraph?
Which of the following is the best version of the underlined portion of sentence 9 (reproduced below)?
In addition to the assurances of safety and stability, retired presidents continue to enjoy some of the influence that accompanies their former office and a few have even gone on to accomplish great work in their post-presidency years.
Which of the following would NOT be an acceptable replacement for the underlined portion of sentence 10 (reproduced below)?
Particularly notable are the careers of William Howard Taft and Jimmy Carter.
Directions: The following questions test your familiarity with basic research skills. For each question, choose the best answer.
Maleka is writing a research paper about the long-term effects of exercise on mental health. What types of resources should she rely on?
What type of citation is modeled below?
Lastname, Firstname. Title. City of publication: Publisher, Publication year. Publication medium.
Which of the following would most likely be found in an academic research paper on the world’s food supply?
Which of the following would most likely be found in a scientific paper on the history of telescopes?